When using FEBio and its supporting software in your published research, we request that you cite our relevant publications. Your citations are very important as we use these data to demonstrate the growing impact of the FEBio project to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), our primary funding source. This in turn will increase our likelihood for continued NIH funding of the FEBio project, will ensure that we can continue to develop and improve the software, and will allow us to continue to support our users in their work and research. If you have any questions regarding citing FEBio correctly in your work, please do not hesitate to reach out to us at info@febio.org.

If you use any of the FEBio software packages (PreView, FEBio, PostView, FEBio Studio), you should cite the main FEBio paper reference:

Maas SA, Ellis BJ, Ateshian GA, Weiss JA: FEBio: Finite elements for biomechanics. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 134(1) 2012.

If you use the FEBio plugin feature to develop your own plugins or you use the plugins available at the online Plugins page, please cite the following paper:

Maas SA, LaBelle SA, Ateshian GA, Weiss JA: A plugin framework for extending the simulation capabilities of FEBio. Biophysical Journal, 115(9):1630-1637, 2018. DOI.

In addition, please cite the relevant references in the following table that describe the specific features in FEBio or plugins that were used in your work.

FEBio FeatureReference
AngioFE pluginEdgar LT, Maas SA, Guilkey JE, Weiss JA: A coupled model of neovessel growth and matrix mechanics describes and predicts angiogenesis in vitro. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 14(4):767-782, 2015. DOI.
anisotropic hydraulic permeability or diffusivityAteshian GA, Weiss JA:  Anisotropic hydraulic permeability under finite deformation.  Journal of biomechanical engineering, 132(11): 111004, 2010. DOI.
biphasic contact Ateshian GA, Maas SA, Weiss JA: Finite element algorithm for frictionless contact of porous permeable media under finite deformation and sliding. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 132(6):1006-1019, 2010. DOI.
cell growthAteshian GA, Morrison B, 3rd, Holmes JW, Hung CT:  Mechanics of Cell Growth.  Mechanics research communications, 42: 118-125, 2012. DOI.
chemical reactions with neutral species Ateshian GA, Albro MB, Maas SA, Weiss JA: Finite element implementation of mechanochemical phenomena in neutral deformable porous media under finite deformation. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 133(8):1005-1017, 2011. DOI.
continuous fiber material with Gauss-Kronrod integrationHou C, Ateshian GA: A Gauss-Kronrod-Trapezoidal integration scheme for modeling biological tissues with continuous fiber distributions. Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering, 19(8):883-893, 2016. DOI.
ellipsoidal fiber distributionAteshian GA, Rajan V, Chahine NO, Canal CE, Hung CT:  Modeling the matrix of articular cartilage using a continuous fiber angular distribution predicts many observed phenomena.  Journal of biomechanical engineering, 131(6): 061003, 2009. DOI.
FEBioChem pluginMaas SA, LaBelle SA, Ateshian GA, Weiss JA: A plugin framework for extending the simulation capabilities of FEBio. Biophysical Journal, 115(9):1630-1637, 2018. DOI.
FEWarp pluginAI Veress, N Phatak, JA Weiss: Deformable image registration with hyperelastic warping. Handbook of Biomedical Image Analysis, 487-533, 2005. DOI.
fluid mechanicsAteshian GA, Shim JJ, Maas SA, Weiss JA: Finite element framework for computational fluid dynamics in FEBio. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 140(2):021001-021017, 2018. DOI.
fluid-solid interactionsShim JJ, Maas SA, Weiss JA, Ateshian GA: A Formulation for Fluid Structure-Interactions in FEBio Using Mixture Theory. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, (in press) 2019. DOI.
growth and remodelingAteshian GA, Nims RJ, Maas SA, Weiss JA: Computational modeling of chemical reactions and interstitial growth and remodeling involving charged solutes and solid-bound molecules. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 13(5):1105-1120, 2014. DOI.
large Poisson’s ratio ligament material modelSwedberg AM, Reese SP, Maas SA, Ellis BJ, Weiss JA: Continuum description of the Poisson’s ratio of ligament and tendon under finite deformation. Journal of Biomechanics, 47(12):3201-3209, 2014. DOI.
material models for damageNims RJ, Durney KM, Cigan AD, Dusséaux A, Hung CT, Ateshian GA: Continuum theory of fibrous tissue damage mechanics using bond kinetics: application to cartilage tissue engineering. Interface Focus, 6(1):20150063, 2016. DOI.
multigeneration solidsAteshian GA, Ricken T: Multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues.  Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology, 9(6): 689-702, 2010. DOI.
multiphasic contactAteshian GA, Maas SA, Weiss JA: Solute transport across a contact interface in deformable porous media. Journal of Biomechanics, 45(6):1023–1027, 2012. DOI.
multiphasic materials; chemical reactions with charged speciesAteshian GA, Maas SA, Weiss JA: Multiphasic finite element framework for modeling hydrated mixtures with multiple neutral and charged solutes. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 135(11):111001, 2013. DOI.
multiphasic shellsHou JC, Maas SA, Weiss JA, Ateshian GA: Finite element formulation of multiphasic shell elements for cell mechanics analyses in FEBio. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, (in press) 2018. DOI.
Prestrain plugin Maas SA, Erdemir A, Halloran JP, Weiss JA: A general framework for application of prestrain to computational models of biological materials. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 61:499-510, 2016. DOI.
quadratic tetrahedral elementsMaas SA, Ellis BJ, Rawlins DS, Weiss JA: Finite element simulation of articular contact mechanics with quadratic tetrahedral elements. Journal of Biomechanics, 49(5):659-667, 2016. DOI.
reactive viscoelasticityAteshian GA: Viscoelasticity using reactive constrained solid mixtures. Journal of Biomechanics, 48(6):941–947, 2015. DOI.
sliding-elastic contact with frictionZimmerman BK, Ateshian GA:  A surface-to-surface finite element algorithm for large deformation frictional contact in FEBio.  Journal of biomechanical engineering, 140(8), 2018. DOI.
transversely isotropic Mooney-Rivlin material modelJA Weiss, BN Maker, S Govindjee: Finite element implementation of incompressible, transversely isotropic hyperelasticity. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 135(1-2), 107-128, 1996. DOI.
transversely isotropic Veronda-Westmann material modelWeiss JA, Gardiner JC, Bonifasi-Lista C: Ligament material behavior is nonlinear, viscoelastic and rate-independent under shear loading. Journal of Biomechanics, 35(7):943-950, 2002. DOI.
viscoelastic solidsPuso MA, Weiss JA: Finite element implementation of anisotropic quasi-linear viscoelasticity using a discrete spectrum approximation. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 120(1):62-70, 1998. DOI.